Human resource management includes compliance with state laws that govern various aspects of employment, such as family and sick leave, posting requirements, employer dismissal prior to dismissal, safety and protection, wages and hours of work, and workers` compensation. Employees may also have rights under government common law, including data protection and contractual rights. Many local governments have their own employment-related laws that cover a broader spectrum than federal or state laws. Human resources professionals should take note of implementing regulations and regulations as well as precedents of federal and state courts and decisions of administrative authorities. You can refer to online resources from federal, state, and local government agencies to help them comply with regulations. In addition to the Ministry of Labor and state agencies, human resources professionals can also refer to other federal agencies that enforce employment laws, such as the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the National Labor Relations Board. Federal laws cover the full scope of employment, from hiring the employee to firing. The U.S. Department of Labor administers important laws and regulations that affect businesses and employees. Laws prescribe standards for wages and hours of work, health and safety, health benefits, retirement, workers` compensation and working conditions. They describe the basic provisions and requirements that employers or employees are covered, employee rights, records, reports and penalties for non-compliance.
There are also specific laws that apply to employers with federal contracts. Federal legislation helps ensure that claimants and employees are treated fairly and are not discriminated against. Recruitment, training and placement must be impartial. Promotion and compensation decisions must be performance-based. These laws help all Americans who have talent, education, and the desire to move forward. The main laws currently affecting human resources management and industrial relations are listed in (figure). Human resources management must comply with all labor, health and safety laws, as well as other relevant laws that apply to the jurisdiction in which the organization operates. These include federal, state, and local laws relating to various areas of human resources such as recruitment, benefits, labor relations, and termination. Staying up to date with the law will ensure that the company complies with regulations and avoids costly penalties. Other important laws that govern important aspects of labour relations and human resource management are: All processes are integral to the survival and success of HR strategies, and no process can operate in isolation. There must be a high degree of agreement and cohesion between them. Every organization works towards the realization of a vision.
The same is achieved through the formulation of certain strategies and their execution, which is carried out by the human resources department. The basis for formulating this strategy are various processes and the effectiveness of the former lies in the careful design of these processes. But what exactly do these processes involve and involve? Let`s read on and explore. Increasing globalization has led large companies to operate internationally or establish themselves abroad. Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements can be a major challenge in an unfamiliar environment where laws and business practices may vary. Businesses must comply with local laws, which affect not only how their business is run, but also how their employees are managed. This includes the management of employees on international travel or assignment and locally hired employees. The network of state and federal laws that exist to regulate employment and labor relations is extensive.
In many cases, the rules only apply to companies with a certain minimum number of employees and therefore do not regulate small businesses. However, other regulations apply to all employee-employer relationships, regardless of the size of the company. Therefore, companies of all sizes must strive to keep pace with legislative and regulatory developments in this area. Professional associations are a good source of information on new regulations, as is the Society of Human Resource Managers (SHRM). SHRM tracks developments at the state and federal levels in human resources and makes much of it available on its website, located in www.shrm.org/. Several laws regulate wages, pensions and unemployment benefits. For example, the Fair Labor Standards Act sets the federal minimum wage, which is regularly increased by Congress. Many minimum wage jobs can be found in service companies such as fast food chains and retail stores. The Pension Reform Act protects the retirement income of employees and retirees. Federal tax laws also affect compensation, including employee participation in profits and stock purchase plans. When John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act in 1963, the goal was to end the practice of paying women lower wages for the same job based on their gender.
At the time, women in full-time jobs earned between 59 and 64 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts in the same jobs. Although this law has been in place for several decades, progress has been slow. On April 17, 2012, President Barack Obama proclaimed National Equal Pay Day, noting that women who work full-time earn only 77 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts. In 2016, the wage gap changed slightly, with women earning 80.5% of what men earn.  One of the most important HRM laws that affects all functional areas is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its subsequent amendments, including the Civil Rights Act of 1991. These actions have made it illegal to discriminate against employees or potential recruits on the basis of race, colour, religion, gender and national origin. It requires employers to frequently follow and document fairness practices with respect to hiring, training, compensation, benefits and virtually all other HRM activities and responsibilities. The 1964 Act established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to enforce the law and provides for civil penalties for discrimination.
The end result of comprehensive civil rights laws is that companies must carefully design and document many procedures to ensure compliance, otherwise they face potentially significant penalties. Another important piece of legislation that complements the civil rights laws discussed above is the Equal Pay Act of 1963. The Act prohibits wage discrimination on the basis of sex and, with a few exceptions, prescribes equal pay for equal work. Subsequent court decisions supplemented the law by promoting the concept of comparable value or equal pay for unequal jobs of equal value or value. The Federal Arbitration Commission supports trade unions and employers in the negotiation of employment contracts. The agency`s specialists who act as impartial third parties between the union and the company use two processes: arbitration and mediation, both of which require expert communication and persuasion. In arbitration, the specialist helps management and the union focus on contentious issues and acts as an intermediary or communication channel through which the union and employer send messages and share information with each other. The specialist plays a more important role in mediation by offering compromises to organizations that quarrel. The effective design of these processes depends, among other things, on the degree of agreement between each of these processes. This means that each process is subordinate to the other. You start with workforce planning and there is continuous added value every step of the way.
For example, the PMS (Performance Management System) of an organization like Infosys would be different from an organization like Walmart. Let`s look at each process separately. A number of federal statutes (listed in (figure)) have an impact on human resources management. Federal law prohibits discrimination on the basis of age, race, sex, color, national origin, religion or disability. The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers with disabilities and requires employers to modify the work environment to accommodate people with disabilities. The Family and Sick Leave Act requires employers, with a few exceptions, to provide employees with up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave per year. The leave may apply to the birth or adoption of a child or due to a serious illness of the employee or a family member. The field of human resource management is heavily influenced and shaped by state and federal laws on employment issues. In fact, regulations and laws govern all aspects of human resources management – recruitment, placement, development and compensation.
and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four or more of the employee relationships, include work and relationships, the work environment, employee health and safety, employee-employee conflict management, employee-employee conflict management, quality of life at work, workers` compensation, employee well-being and support programs, advice on work stress. All of this is crucial for employee retention, aside from money, which is just a hygiene factor. Rowena Odina has been writing manuals, manuals and employee communications as part of her human resources management duties since 2002. She specializes in writing on topics related to human resources. She holds a Certificate in Human Resources Management from Seneca College and a Certificate in Payroll Management from the Canadian Payroll Association. The NLRB was founded to enforce the Wagner Act. Its five members are appointed by the President; The agency`s headquarters are located in Washington, D.C., and regional and field offices are scattered throughout the United States.